Keywords: renewable energy region, 100% renewable energy self sufficiency region, Regional Council of Lapland, renewable energy in Lapland regional council.
Lapland is one of the regions in Finland. The municipalities in the province cooperate in a Regional Council. It borders the Region of North Ostrobothnia in the south and also to the Gulf of Bothnia, Norbotten County in Sweden, Finmark County, Troms County in Norway, and Murmansk Oblast in Russia. The location of Lapland can be viewed in Figure 1.
Lapland is home of 3.6% Finland population. It is the least densely populated area in the country. Its regional capital is Rovaniemi. It is also one of the biggest town in Lapland. Other biggest town are Kemi and Tornio. In 2009, Lapland has a population of 183,748 inhabitants. The 21 municipalities of Lapland are organized into a single region, the Lapland Regional Council.
Lapland’s self sufficiency in electricity production is slightly more than needed. In 2009, renewable energy has already accounted for over 90% of all electricity produced in the region of Lapland.
The Association of Finnish Local and Regional Authorities (AFLRA)
This association represents the towns and municipalities of Finland. The association calls upon local authorities to (some points related to renewable energy development):
- explore renewable energy potential and select the technically and economically most viable options from the broad range of renewable energy sources: wind energy, wood, biogas, ground heat, recycled fuels, and solar energy. Local authorities regardless of their size can make more investments in renewable energy.
- apply energy efficiency measures and save energy. Local authorities can seek support for their efforts by signing an Energy Efficiency Agreement with the Ministry of Employment and the Economy, or by joining the local government energy programme managed, by Motiva, a Finnish company providing expert services in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy.
- consider climate issues from a regional viewpoint when organizing land use, transport, energy supply, waste management and services.
- always consider what impact procurement will have on climate, energy efficiency and the environment, and to incorporate criteria related to these issues in the calls for tenders.
Development of Renewable Energy
Global climate and energy strategy has not successful. It is the time to act locally and find the best practices to get forward. The local government policy of the Greens was based on some following positions from the Greens in the Finnish local elections on the 26th of October 2008 (some points related to energy):
- responsibility for the climate change belongs to everyone
- new nuclear power plants or uranium mines are unnecessary
Sustainability and self-sufficiency are Lapland’s commonly energy visions.
- To utilize Lapland’s large energy resources in order that Lappish knowledge and regional economy will develop and energy solutions support Lapland’s vitality.
- Lapland’s own know-how and business activities are supported so that in the future Lapland will be known for its role as a developer and user of energy production and saving solutions which are suitable for northern conditions.
District Climate and Energy Strategy – Municipal Sector in Action
In Finland in 2005 around 15% of the electricity demand was produced decentralized by municipal power plants. The municipal share of district heating production was approximately 80% and the yearly carbon dioxide emissions from the energy production of the twelve largest cities make up 15% of the total emission in Finland. There is coming an areal (5 municipalities) strategy in Sea-Lapland (Figure 2). Started in January 2009.
The National Climate and Energy Strategies
The third Finnish national climate and energy strategy was completed in autumn 2008. EU standards in it. Total energy 310 TWh.
- Total energy down (1 time) by efficiency and saving
- 16% reduced emissions (traffic + agriculture + buildings)
- Renewable energy is needed 30 TWh more in 2020: biomass 50% (Combined Heat and Power); wind power 6% (Electricity); ground heat (buildings).
Money to investments (40 – 60%) and secure feed-in tariff for wind power and biogas.
Energy Efficiency and Agreements 2008 – 2016
- The agreement primarily aims to improve energy efficiency.
- ” …the public sector plays an exemplary role in the promotion of energy saving”, EU directive, goal 9%.
- >58% of Finnish municipalities are in. Tornio isn’t.
Coverage of energy conservation agreements in Finland at the end of 2005 can be viewed in Figure 3.
Renewable Energy in Lapland
With abundant energy sources, Lapland have long enabled to produce energy for its own needs and for the rest of Finland. Lapland utilizes a plenty of hydro-power, local wood fuels, peat and waste liquor from forest industry (Figure 4). In industry, heat generated is used for its own production and in population centers, it is supplied to the district heat networks. Distribution of electricity consumption in Lapland can be viewed in Figure 5.
- Energy production is 12 TWh/180,000 inhabitants.
- Energy intensive industry (steel and paper), 70% of all use.
- Electricity production >104%.
- Renewable energy enough for own use (in 2009 is 91%).