Keywords: renewable energy region, 100% renewable energy self sufficiency region, Castilla y León, renewable energy in Castilla y León.
Castilla y León is one of the largest region in Spain and one of the largest European regions. Its area account for 20% of Spain’s land area or 94,224 km2.
Renewable Energy Development
Castilla y León was the first region which signed the Declaration of European Regions to commit on energy efficiency and renewable energies. In the past, this region produces the energy required from coal, hydro, and nuclear power. But recently, renewable energy have been developed. The reasons behind were:
- global context: global warming and Kyoto protocol
- European context: The European Union White Book of Renewable Energies and Renewable Energy Directive (2001/77/EU)
- The Spanish context: Renewable energy plan from 2005 up to 2010
The objective in 2010 are:
- 12% domestic consumption comes from renewable energies
- 29.4% electricity produced, 5.75% bio-diesel
- increase the installed power up to 42.494 MW and the power production up to 102.259 KW
This region tends to develop two types of renewable energy. They are wind power and solar power (thermic and photovoltaic). From renewable energy sector, this region has 33 hydropower plants, a wind power capacity of 2569 MW, 53.000 m2 of solar thermal installed and 8 bio-fuel plants.
Wind Power in Castilla y León
Wind power installed up to 01/01/07 is 2.281,46 MW. And the installed wind power up to 01/01/08 is 3.131,36 MW. It is estimated in 2010 there will be in total 6.700 MW of wind power installed. The amount of wind energy are follows:
- 137 wind plants in operation
- 2.790 wind turbines
- 817 KW power
- 21 turbines by plants (average), maximum 67 turbines
- 135 wind plants with 3.114 MW (administrative authorization)
The objective of this region with wind power is to be the first producer on wind energy in Spanish. Based on prevision regional, this area will have potential of wind energy in 2010 at amount 6.700 MW. Therefore, the government has made clear legal and administrative initiatives to support wind energy. The development of wind power consider environmental criteria. It’s implemented with defining the environmental sensitivity area (Figure 2).
The distribution of wind energy in the region can be viewed in Figure 3. The distribution amount of energy in the region can be viewed in Figure 4.
Some impacts of wind energy implementation in Castilla y LeónThere are some conflicts from in the implementation of wind energy in the field. The example of these conflicts are conflict with neighboring regions (disturbance on visual impacts) and in mountain area with particularly rich natural heritage such as death of big birds caused by turbines (Figure 5), troubles with sensitive species such as Capercaillie “Tetrao urogallus” or conflicts with government of Cantabria region. The other impact which is also occurred is landscape impact (Figure 6). However, the enviromental impact is less on the plains, although the landscape impact is very strong (Figure 6).
The area of the region which has high solar potential is located in the south. The stratification of solar potency in the region can be viewed in Figure 7. The amount of solar potency in each province in the region can be seen in Figure 8. In 2010, it is estimated that Castilla y León will have potency of solar energy at about 11.6 MWp. Status of solar PV in each province in the region can be viewed in Figure 9. Distribution of PV installed in each province can be found in Figure 10. Likewise wind energy, solar energy has changed the landscape of the region. The changing of landscape in the region is resulted from solar garden or solar farm, which has differences in size, type of promotion and investment, and localization and technology (Figure 11).