Keywords: renewable energy region, 100% renewable energy self sufficiency region, Lazio Region, renewable energy in Lazio Region.
Lazio is a region of a west central Italy (Figure 1). It is bordered by:
- north: Tuscany, Umbria, and Marche
- east: Abruzzo and Molise
- south: Campania
- west: Tyrrhenian Sea
Lazio is the region of Rome, capital of Italy. The region is divided into five provinces. They are Frosinone, Latina, Rieti, Rome, and Viterbo Provinces. The overall population density in the region of Lazio is 326 inhabitants per km2, which is the third highest amongst the Italian regions after Campania and Lombardia. Based on 2008 estimation, the population density ranges from 765 inhabitants per km2 (in the province of Rome) to less than 60 inhabitants per km2 (in the province of Rieti). In 2006, the Italian national institute of statistics (ISTAT) estimated that 275,065 foreign-born immigrants live in Lazio, equal to 5.2% of the total regional population.
Total consumption of Lazio Region in 2004 was 16.2 Mtep (Tonne of Oil Equivalent). Final use of energy by sector is agriculture and fishery (2.1%), industry (8%), transports (48.7%), and civil use (39.4%). During 1995-2004 there was an increase of 25.3%, mainly due to the civil sector (+34.1%) and transports (+30.2%).
Regional Energy Plan
Lazio is the first region in Italy which adopts the EU policy for energy sustainability (20 – 20 – 20) by 2020. The adoption was presented in the form of a new Regional Energy Plan of Lazio Region (PER). The new regional energy plan can be viewed in Table 1.
Table 1. Lazio Region’s new Regional Energy Plan (PER)
The strategy of Lazio Region for RES/EE started in 2005. It concerned three main areas:
- development of renewable energy sources through incentives;
- creation of R&D centers;
- administrative simplification.
Development of Renewable Energy Sources through Incentives
Development of renewable energy sources through incentives has been implemented by the following actions:
- Micro credit for the Photovoltaic sector
- Energy Efficiency in the final uses (regional policies)
- Sustainable mobility
Creation of Research & Development centers
Three R&D centers were established with different function, purposes, and budget, they are:
- R&D center for hydrogen: the hydrogen pole of activities recover the overall hydrogen chain
- R&D center for third generation of photovoltaic: the Center for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy has been created to build a Pole of Excellence for the research and development of organic and hybrid technologies applied to photovoltaic energy. The use of organic solar cells has the aim to improve energy efficiency and to spread renewable sources.
- Center for sustainable mobility: POMOS is a testing and technological innovation center as well as a landmark aimed at aggregating small and medium enterprises operating in the area of mobility. Its objectives are: research and development, technology transfer, training, communication.
Administrative simplifications applied in Lazio Region are:
- Declaration of the start-up activities
- Creation of guidelines for the authorization of installation of renewable energy (wind, photovoltaic, and geothermal)
- Guidelines for sustainable urban planning and architecture
Pilot Projects, Reached Goals, and Progress Achievements
Main Pilot Projects
- Solarization of regional parks
- Ventotene: the first Italian zero emission island
- Biomass Power fueled by the scraps of pruning from the heritage three of the city of Rome
- Detergents in draft
There are some goals have been reached during the progress of development. They are:
- 150 MW of renewable sources, wind and photovoltaic energy under construction
- 60 million Euros of private investments in the three R&D centers funded by Lazio region
- Funds allocated to the installations of pv systems exhausted in three days
- Funds allocated to energy efficiency projects (for public and private users) exhausted in one day
- First prototype of a full panel (Figure 2)
- Total power of authorized 51 solar PV plants was 246,2 MW and undergoing authorization procedure 134 plants are 1059 MW (Figure 3 and 4)
- Dispenser installed in Rome’s supermarkt – soap on tap project: reusable detergent bottles (Figure 5)
- 34 points of unpacked sale on 16 months (12 brands involved) and 100 forecoming points of unpacked sale by the end of 2011 (Figure 6 and 7)
Critical issues appeared in the progress are:
- Involvement: scarce when local authorities (municipalities) are not included in the process from the beginning
- Buraucracy: difficulties remain in the application of authorization (complex procedure)
- Technology transfer: difficult the transfer of technological knowledge from R&D centers to local enterprises.
Main spatial concerns relate to the land consumption followed by the spread of renewable energy systems in the regional territory (mainly photovoltaic and wind). The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is the instrument used to evaluate the projects of RES in contrast to the possibility to create damages to the countryside, local agriculture, vegetation, and fauna.
There are many five experiences can be learned from Lazio Region in order to develop renewable energy:
- Regional planning: regional acts defined the following criterions for program implementation
- Center for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy (C.H.O.S.E): the aim is to develop a process for industrialization in order to involve the local enterprises
- Simplification of administrative procedures: all the regional acts have contributed to simplify the authorization process
- Training credits in the public Universities of Lazio: agreement between Lazio Region and all the public Lazio Universities to introduce training credits on renewable energy and energy savings
- Saving consumption of frequent use for the reduction of CO2, raw materials production, and water consumptio: soap on tap (a project aimed at sensitizing citizens in order to protect environment) and reduce packaging project