Keywords: renewable energy region, 100% renewable energy self sufficiency region, Jämtland County, renewable energy in Jämtland.
Jämtland is a county in the middle Sweden (Figure 1). It is the third largest county in Sweden. It is a sparsely populated county with more trees than inhabitants. Total area of Jämtland county council is 49,443 km2 (12% of Sweden’s total area). The total number of inhabitants in Jämtland is 127,000 persons, with the number of inhabitants in Östersund 58,600 persons. The county capital is Östersund. There are eight municipalities in this county; Berg, Bräcke, Härjedalen, Krokom, Ragunda, Strömsund, Åre, and Östersund (Figure 1)
Totally, primary energy production in Jämtland is around 27 TWh. 100% renewable energy from water, wind, and bio-fuel are used to produce electricity. More than 50% of heat production comes from renewable energy in case peat is counted as renewable energy sources (RES).
Total production of electricity is about 12.5 TWh
which comes from following sources
- Hydro power: 12.3 TWh
- Wind power: 0.04 TWh (Figure 2)
- CHP (Biofuels): 0.2 TWh
Total production of heat (Figure 3) is around 2.3 TWh and generated from:
- biofuels: 1.1 TWh
- electricity: 0.7 TWh
- heating oil: 0.2 TWh
- peat: 0.1 TWh
- heat pumps: 0.1 TWh
- others: 0.1 TWh
Share of Renewable Energy
Share of renewable energy of total energy production in Jämtland in 1999 and 2004 can be viewed in Figure 4.
- Percentage of sectors (of total primary energy consumption): industrial 12%; transport 34%; residential 54% (including commercial); energy production (included in industrial).
- Percentage of energy sources (of total primary energy consumption): mineral oil 37%; renewable 63%.
- Total electric consumption: 2.0 TWh which is used in industry, rail, service, heating one family houses, cottages, and residential others (Figure 5).
- Total energy consumption: 5.8 TWh.
- Percentage of renewable energy (of total electricity consumption): 100%.
- Regional oil deliveries: gasoline, diesel, and heating (Figure 6).
- The county council of Jämtland heating energy during 1973 – 2008 (Figure 7).
Background of Renewable Energy Development
The dramatic rise in oil price in 1973 triggered the first effort in replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. At that time the county council had oil-fired central heating in 84% of its premises. Today it does not use any oil at all.
Renewable Energy Development
This county is committed to working for environmental sustainability. It has resulted in a major reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. Biofuels are increasingly popular and sales of eco-cars have surpassed SUV sales. They have focused on sustainable development in general and environmental management in particular for some years.
Goal and Aim
Jämtland both the private and the public sectors collaborate with the local population on environmental issues. The aim is sustainable development. The goal is to become a fossil-fuel-free region.
- Jämtland county – non fossil fuel region in 2010
- Reduction of green house gas (GHG) emission/capita: 50% (1990 – 2025)
- Wind power: 1 TWh in 2015
- Distribution system for alternative fuels
- No “single use” of heating oil in 2010.
- Total use of energy is increasing
- The use of electricity is increasing
- Oil deliveries start to increase again
Present Work Areas
- Increase the use of bio-fuels in middle-scale heating plants: 50 kW – 1 MW (Figure 8a)
- Increase the use of thermal solar energy in houses and commercial buildings (Figure 8b)
- Saving energy in office building by changing behavior: Information giving (Figure 8c)
- Information for one-family houses for electricity heating (Figure 8d)
Future Work Areas
- Planning for more wind power plants
- CHP, ethanol, and bio-fuel production in association with China’s biggest energy company, from prime forestry raw products, for homes and greenhouses (Figure 9).
Achievements up to 2007 are:
- Power: 100% domestic and renewable energy sources (RES)
- Heat: 2/3 bio-energy/waste heat
- Transport: 3% RES (ethanol)
- CO2 reduction: 20% (1990 – 2004)
National or international attention:
- Sustainable energy Europe
- Eurosolar 2006
- Green motorists
Regional Energy Agency
- Financed by eight municipalities and the Swedish Energy Agency
- Board of politicians and industry
- Three employees
- Working with energy efficiency and renewable energy sources
- Outlining regional objectives
In 2004 Jämtland County Council achieved both ISO 14 001 and EMAS accreditation as the first county council in Europe to do so. One of the most significant environmental impacts which the council makes and which it is trying to reduce is carbon dioxide discharge from Transport and Energy supply.
Carbon dioxide emission from energy/heating
The County Council has intention of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from all activities. Heating systems have been changed from oil heating to district heating with bio fuel in all properties owned by the County Council. Carbon dioxide has been reduced from 16 kg CO2/m2 in 2001 to 9,7 kg CO2/m2 in 2004.
Streamlining of energy
A new campaign has just started involving all the staff with the purpose of saving more energy.
Renewable energy in Jämtland
Hydroelectric is the major sources of energy. It provides electricity for two million households. This number of electricty producing has exceeded the requirement of electricity of inhabitants in Jämtland. 85% of electricity produced is exported to other Sweden region and other European countries via power transmission network.
Currently, there are 30 wind turbines (Figure 10) in the county, but it is predicted that there will be more additional construction of this energy up to 750 new installation which will be proposed by wind power companies.
Bioenergy has increased the popularity as important energy source. The source of this energy comes from forest products. The county wanted to double the bioenergy production for electricity and heat by 2020. The forestry products used to produce electricity and heat, such as tops and branches, bi-products from sawmills and recycled wood. Other types of bioenergy produced are biogas from municipal landfill and peat resources.
The Municipality of Östersund is a member of the organization “Climate municipalities”. The municipality has chosento invest in a mobility management office called “Grön Trafik” (Green Traffic) that works to reduce the impact of travel and transport. Their work has resulted among other things in more bicycle paths, environmental vehicles, car pools, eco-driving and video conferences. Grön Trafik has also collaborated in many projects, one of which has resulted in the purchase of twelve electric bicycles for use by municipal employees (Figure 11).
Green Highway – a Green Transport Axis through a Belt of Renewable Energy
Three cities, Sundsvall, Östersund and Trondheim, in collaboration with energy companies (Jämtkraft), in the Mid-Scandinavia Region, plan to create a green highway along route crosses Scandinavia, connecting the Atlantic with the Baltic coast (Figure 12). Along the highway (almost 500 km), there will be facilities for filling up vehicles with biogas, ethanol, rapeseed diesel and, electricity. Some of these services are already available (at least every 100-150 km). Two places have biogas pumps, and there are around 20 filling stations that sell ethanol fuel. In 2009, a string of charging stations would be established, allowing electric vehicles to recharge their batteries along the entire highway. This Project also includes plans to create an urban winter testing centre for electric and other environmental vehicles in Östersund.
- Route: European route 14 and the almost 130-year-old railway. It is an ancient route from Sundsvall in Sweden to Trondheim in Norway.
- The region has about 350,000 inhabitants in the larger urban areas of Sundsvall, Östersund and Trondheim.
- The region has a total of 150,000 vehicles.
- An attractive living environment requires travel that is economically, socially and ecologically sustainable.
- It has a shorter journey times for public transport.
- Jämtkraft, Sundsvall Energi, Härjeåns Kraft, Trönder Energi, Trondheim Energi and Nord-Tröndelag elektrisitetsverk are highly involved in expanding the energy infrastructure along the Green Highway.
- Jämtkraft is also participating in the development of electric cars adapted to demanding winter climates. This company is the owner of the Sweden’s first full-size electric-powered car (Figure 13).
- The car will run on electric power and equipped with battery. Uppsala-based Electroengine is a company at the leading edge of battery development.
- There are advanced plans for a production facility in Sundsvall that will guarantee access to biogas for vehicles.
- Plenty of environmentally friendly business ideas are blooming in the wake of the Green Highway project: manufacturing quiet, odorless snowmobiles; producing charging posts and developing payment systems; four-season vehicle testing, converting petrol stations to energy stations, etc.
Exciting investments in the footsteps of the Green Highway:
- A guide to electric cars and rechargeable hybrids currently with 83 models of cars has been produced in collaboration with Sundsvall Energi, Jämtkraft, Trondheim Energi and Trønder Energi.
- A list of 100 items including some measures that have been already implemented and some that are identified for implementation.
- A first electric bus is being introduced.
- Charging stations/charging posts are in production
- An electric scooter project is being launched to produce 4 prototypes of electrically-powered snow scooters.
- It is planned that electric cars/electric vehicles will be tested and verified mainly in a winter climate at the Vehicle Technical Centre in Östersund.
Improving Energy Efficiency
In addition to purely practical measures to improve energy efficiency, such as lighting, heat recovery, improved windows etc., the council provides information about energy and environmental issues to their 4,000 employees.
The Energy Post “Energistolpen”
John Pettersson is an entrepreneur who plans to improve caravan parks all over Europe through the introduction of small-scale district heating systems. His idea is to enable caravan parks (Figure 14) to offer campers cheaper and more environmental heating from their own central heating plant, using biofuel, wind turbine, solar panel or any other source of energy. His invention “Energistolpen” will provide a link between the heating plant and the caravan. It be used in reverse in warm climates where air-conditioning is in demand.
The hospital, town hall, flats, industries, 3,500 detached houses, the central town square, and a large football (almost the entire town of Östersund) are connected to the district heating system and is heated by the district heating power plant. Only 1% of the system is oil-fueled. The district heating power plant and the 65 m high accumulator tank (Figure 15), with a restaurant on its top floor, have become popular tourist attractions.
The accumulator tank can hold 26 million liters of water and improves the efficiency and reliability of the district heating system. Approximately 220 GWh of electricity and 470 GWh of district heating per year are produced for the inhabitants of Östersund.
Heat from the Forest
Over the past few years the county council have invested in converting forest products into wood-chips, firewood, and heat. Their customers come from the local area and from Norway. Their business idea is based on designing and constructing small-scale district heating systems to heat their own and others’ premises. They also provide a heating-system maintenance service to hotel owners and others. The service includes the provision of a portable furnace unit, complete with a chip storage bin. In case the furnace is needed elsewhere, it is easy to transport. Sundsjö Bioenergi has taken over about 100 council flats and replaced the old oil furnaces that consumed 250m3 of oil per year. Now the flats are heated by wood-chips.
Dustbin men, taxi drivers and families – people of all sorts drive biogas vehicles in Östersund. Since the municipality opened its biogas plant and filling station two years ago, the interest in biogas vehicles has increased constantly. At present there are about 200 light vehicles and two waste collection vehicles running on biogas in Östersund – it has been, so far, 500km to the nearest biogas filling station (Figure 16).
Sludge from the sewage, whey from a dairy, and antifreeze from the local airport are converted into methane gas, carbon dioxide, and water in a digester. The methane is then purified and concentrated in an upgrader to produce environmental fuel. The plant produces about 850,000 m3 biogas/year. At present about half is used as fuel for vehicles and the remainder is used for district heating. A state grant combined with a well-established environmental policy were the factors behind Östersund Municipality investing in their own biogas plant.